Narration or Speech is what a speaker says. We can convey a message of a person to other people. We can say it in two ways:

  1. (Exactly) Direct Speech: John said, “I will give you a pen”.

Reporting speech             Reported speech

  1. (Reportedly) Indirect Speech: John said that he would give me a pen.

Reporting verb                  Reported speech


Present Indefinite >Past IndefiniteDo, does, go, V1 > V2, went, did
Present continuous >Past ContinuousAm, is, are > was, were
Present Perfect >Past PerfectHave, has > had
Present Perfect Continuous >Past Perfect ContinuousHave been, has been > had been
Past Indefinite >Past PerfectV2  > Had
Past Continuous >Past Perfect ContinuousWas, were > had been
Past Perfect >Past PerfectHad > had
Past Perfect Continuous >Past Perfect ContinuousHad been > had been
Future Indefinite >Shall/will > would

Shall be /will be > would be

Shall have / will have > would have

Shall have been /will have been>Would have been

Future Continuous >
Future Perfect >
Future Perfect Continuous >



Karim said, “ I write a letter” 
Karim said, “ I am writing a letter” 
Karim said, “I have written a letter” 
Karim said, “ I have been writing a letter” 
Karim said, “ I wrote a letter” 
Karim said, “I was writing a letter” 
Karim said, “ I had written a letter” 
Karim said, “ I had been writing a letter” 
Karim said, “I shall write” 
Karim said, “ I shall be writing” 
Karim said, “I shall have written a letter.” 
Karim said, “I shall have been writing a letter” 



Sentence Changes



said /told that

said / told that

InterrogativeWH Questions

Yes/No  Que.

Asked Karim WH ….

Asked Karim if……..







Told Karim to do something
Requested Karim to do something
Told Karim not to do something
OptativeWished that+ Sub+might + V1.
ExclamatoryExclaimed with wonder/sorrow/joy + that…


Sentence Changes Exercises

Karim said, “I am from Magura.”Karim said that he is from Magura
Karim said, “ I don’t like cigarettes”Karim said that he didn’t like cigarettes.
Karim said to Runa, “Are you going?”Karim asked Runa if she was going.
Karim said to Runa, “Why are you laughing?”Karim asked Runa why she was laughing.
Karim said to Runa, “Give me a pen.”Karim told Runa to give him a pen.
Karim said to Runa, “Don’t make a noise”Karim told Runa not to make a noise.
Karim said to Runa, “May you be happy”Karim wished Runa that she might be happy.
Karim said, “What a nice garden it is!”Karim exclaimed with joy that it was very nice garden.

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